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Water management and hydrodiplomacy of river basins: Litani, Hasbani-Wazzani, Orontes, Nahr El Kebir


Water Management and Hydrodiplomacy of River Basins:
Litani, Hasbani-Wazzani, Orontes, Nahr El Kebir

Fadi Georges Comair

ISBN: 9789953457741 (pbk.)
Publication: 2009
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Water management and hydrodiplomacy of river basins: Litani, Hasbani-Wazzani, Orontes, Nahr El Kebir
Fadi Georges Comair
Notre Dame University©, Louaize, 2009
P.O.Box: 72, Zouk Mikayel – Lebanon
Printed by: Meouchy & Zakaria Press
ISBN: 9789953457741 (pbk.)

Dr. Fadi Georges Comair is the Director General of Hydraulic and Electrical Resources of Lebanon and the Director of the Water, Energy and Environment Research Center (WEERC) at Notre Dame University.
He was chairman of the Litani River Authority from 1993 to 2000.
Dr. Fadi Comair is an active member of the ASCE’s Environment and water Resources Institute. In May 2009 he was recognized by the American Academy of Water Resources Engineers (AAWRE) Board of Trustees as Diplomat Water Resource Engineer (D.WRE).
His work at the Ministry of Energy and Water was marked by the Ten Years IWRM Vision Strategy for Lebanon destined to satisfy the water demand management of the country. He also played an active role in water conflict resolutions on several international water courses in the Middle East such as the Orontes (Assi), Nahr El Kebir and the Jordan River Basin.
Dr. Fadi Comair is a main water expert at the Union for the Mediterranean Water Information System (EUWI), and launched the European Union Water Initiative (EUWI) program in Lebanon in coordination with GWP-med.
In October 2009 Dr. Fadi Comair was designated President of the Mediterranean Network of Basin Organizations (MENBO).



Foreword Dr. Fadi Georges Comair
Prof. Dr. Jon Martin Trondalen, Chairman of Compass Foundation
Professor Michael Scoulos, GWPMed, Director

CHAPTER I   Integrated Water Resources Management in the Mediterranean Basin (IWRM)

  • I.   Introduction
  • II.   Water management in the Mediterranean basin
    • II.1   Demography
    • II.2   Climate in the Mediterranean basin
    • II.3   Surface and flow of Mediterranean river basins
    • II.4   Hydrogeological structures of aquifers
    • II.5   Renewable and exploitable resources
    • II.6   Water demands by sector of use
    • II.7   Excessive utilization of the aquifers
    • II.8   Environmental risks
    • II.9   Challenges of water governance and management
    • II.10   Principle of Dublin
    • II.11   Process of Integration
  • III.   European Union Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD)
CHAPTER II   Hydrodiplomacy for sustainable development
  • I.   Pressures on water resources
  • II.   Cooperation for the development of nations
  • III.   Strategy formulation of hydrodiplomatic negotiation
    • III.1   Definition of national strategic objectives
    • III.2   Negotiation instruments
    • III.3   Criteria for successful negotiation
    • III.4   Negotiation strategy and application of the national evaluation system
    • III.5   Presentation of a road map with options
  • IV.   Legal aspects of transboundary watercourses management
    • IV.1   United Nations Convention (1997)
  • V.   Conclusion
CHAPTER III   Public Private Partnership (PPP) in the developing countries
  • I.   Introduction
  • II.   General trends for public private partnership
    • II.1   Regulations
    • II.2   Tariff Systems
    • II.3   Level and quality of water services under PPP in Lebanon
    • II.4   Financial Aspects
  • III.   World Bank PPP Case Studies
    • III.1   Analysis of the cases
  • IV.   Recommendations to be adopted
  • V.   Conclusion
CHAPTER IV   Integrated water resource management implementation in Lebanon
  • I.   Introduction
  • II.   Integrated water resource management in Lebanon
  • III.   New competences of the Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW)
    • III.1   Competences of the new Public Water Establishments
    • III.2   Pricing policy in Lebanon
  • IV.   The role of France in the institutional reform: cooperation on the Water Code
    • IV.1   Component 1
    • IV.2   Component 2
    • IV.3   Forms of PPP contracts for the management of the water sector in Lebanon
    • IV.4   Proposition of the Water Code for Lebanon
  • V.   European Union Water Initiative in Lebanon (EUWI)
  • VI.   Opening of the conference at ESCWA (4 November 2005)
    • VI.1   Inauguration of the Water, Energy and Environment Research Center (WEERC)
    • VI.2   Official launching of the Mediterranean Education Initiative for Environment and Sustainability (MEDIES)
    • VI.3   Group of the Mediterranean Parliamentarians for Sustainable Development (COMPSUD)
    • VI.4   National dialogue
    • VI.5   Regional water and environment center at Saint Joseph’s University (CREEN)
    • VI.6   Closure and resolutions
  • VII.   Paris III donors meeting for the water sector
    • VII.1   Water strategic paper
  • VIII.   Action plan for IWRM enforcement in Lebanon
    • VIII.1   Main topics for a national action plan
    • VIII.2   Operational Level
CHAPTER V   Water Resources in Lebanon
  • I.   Water Resources in Lebanon
    • I.1   Topographical relief and precipitation
    • I.2   Water balance in Lebanon
  • II.   Water demand in Lebanon
    • II.1   Population
    • II.2   Drinking water demand
    • II.3   Water demand for irrigation
    • II.4   Hydraulic balance in Lebanon: estimates and forecasts
    • II.5   Global assessments of water demands
  • III.   Decennial strategic plan 2000–2010-2018
    • III.1   Ensuring additional water resources
    • III.2   Drinking water projects
    • III.3   Collection and treatment of wastewater
    • III.4   Priorities and proposals presented by the GDHER 10 year strategic plan
    • III.5   Irrigation Projects
    • III.6   Flood mitigation and alignment of rivers beds
  • IV.   Financial requirements
  • V.   Conclusion
CHAPTER VI   Litani basin
  • I.   Characteristics of the Litani basin
  • II.   Natural and hydraulic characteristics of the river
  • III.   Assessment of the Litani water resource
  • IV.   The Litani Basin master plans
    • IV.1   Hydropower plan
    • IV.2   Master plans for drinking water, irrigation and industry
  • V.   Five-year Strategic Master Plan
    • V.1   Emergency recovery program
    • V.2   Short and medium term plans
    • V.3   Long term strategy for the irrigation and water supply
CHAPTER VII   Litani hydrodiplomacy and the Israeli–Lebanese conflict
  • I.   Historical facts
  • II.   Litani operation
  • III.   “Peace for Galillee” operation
  • IV.   Liberation of South Lebanon in May 2000
  • V.   Litani hydrodiplomacy
CHAPTER VIII   Hydrodiplomacy between Lebanon and Syria on the Orontes (Assi) and Nahr El Kebir watercourses
  • I.   Characteristics of the Orontes (Assi) watercourse
  • II.   Negotiations on the Orontes (Assi): Agreement of 1994
  • III.   Historical facts
    • III.1   Addendum of 1997
  • IV.   Resumption of recognitions
  • V.   Return to the starting point
  • VI.   Negotiations concerning the Nahr el Kebir River
    • VI.1   Hydrogeographical description
    • VI.2   Agreement on Nahr el Kebir
    • VI.3   Idlin-Noura el Tahta dam
  • VII.   Comparative study: UN Convention and Agreement on the Orontes and Nahr el Kebir Rivers
CHAPTER IX   Hydrodiplomacy in the Jordan River Basin: Conflict between Lebanon and Israel on the Hasbani-Wazzani river
  • I.   Introduction
  • II.   Liberation of South Lebanon and beginning of the conflict on the Hasbani - Wazzani watercourse
    • II.1   Reactions of the Lebanese political leaders
    • II.2   Reactions of the international community
  • III.   International mediations
    • III.1   Mediation by the USA
  • IV.   United Nations mediation
  • V.   Economic value of water captured by Israel
  • VI.   Characteristics of the Hasbani-Wazzani watercourse
    • VI.1   Basins location
    • VI.2   Hydrometric network of the Hasbani River
  • VII.   Hydrology
    • VII.1   Hydrogeology and the aquifer units
  • VIII.   Socio-economic conditions within the Hasbani watercourse
    • VIII.1   Population
    • VIII.2   Socio-economic indicators
  • IX.   Estimation of water demands in the Hasbani watercourse area
    • IX.1   Population
    • IX.2   Present and future demand for domestic water
    • IX.3   Water balance in the Hasbani-Wazzani watercourse
    • IX.4   Current water use
    • IX.5   Israel installations on the Wazzani springs
  • X.   Water schemes within the Hasbani watercourse area
  • XI.   Wazzani water supply project
    • XI.1   Hasbaya-Habbaryeh water project
    • XI.2   Ibl Al Saqi dam project
    • XI.3   Hasbaya wastewater project
  • XIII.   Conclusion
CHAPTER X   Hydrodiplomatic stakes of Chebaa Farms
  • I.   Situation of Conflict
  • II.   Judicial context of Chebaa Farms
  • III.   United Nations position
  • IV.   Detailed description of Chebaa Farms
  • V.   Hydrogeographic context
CHAPTER XI   Future prospects for hydrodiplomacy in the Middle-East: New water mass
  • I.   Water resources and society: a strategic world stake
  • II.   The Arab-Israeli conflict
  • III.   New water mass for peace in the Jordan River
  • IV.   Hydropolitical orientations of Turkey
  • V.   Hydropolitical future of the Nile basin countries
  • VI.   Nile and the Euphrates-Tigris: basins comparison
  • VII.   Universitiy role and the water culture in the Mediterranean basin
  • VIII.   Hydrodiplomacy and sustainable development



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