This Lebanon Research Guide provides some guidance on where to start researching for resources related to Lebanon. The guide includes many topics of interest, and resources in multiple languages and formats, from books, e-books, journals, newspapers, Dissertations & Theses, and mix of relevant web links.
Bechara El Khoury
(1890-1964) Bechara El Khoury was the first post-independence President of Lebanon (1943-1952).
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The Chronology of Lebanon's Independence
European-Ottoman treaty called Organic Regulation (Mount Lebanon) was a series of conventions between the Ottoman Empire and main European Powers which lead to the creation of Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifiya.
Image Source: Part of a series on the History of Lebanon. Wikipedia.org
(5 September 1860)
An international committee from the Ottoman Empire, France, Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Britain, encountered to endorse a new system for Lebanon.
Image source: Ottoman Bank in Beirut. Wikipedia.org
The Mount Lebanon Muttasarifate system was established in 1861. And it persisted until 1918.
Image source: Lebanese soldiers during the Mutasarrifiyya period of Mount Lebanon. Wikipedia.org
(1919 – 1920)
Between these periods, the Paris Peace Conference was the official assembly of the victorious Allies by the end of World War I.
Image source: Paris Peace Conference. Wikipedia.org
(27 October 1919)
The Lebanese delegation headed by the Maronite Patriarch Elias Peter Hoayek has presented the aspirations in the memorandum to the Paris Peace Conference.
Image source: Patriarch Hoayek in 1899. Wikipedia.org
(25 April 1920)
The San Remo Resolution has decided to allocate the Class “A” League of Nations mandates for the administration of three then-undefined Ottoman territories in the Middle East, as “Palestine, Syria and Mesopotamia.
Lebanon 1860-1960 by Claude Boueiz KanaanInsightful and extensively researched, Lebanon 1860-1960 explores the differing mythologies of the Maronite, Druze and Sunni communities that led to a brief but brutal clash in Lebanon in 1958.
Publication Date: 2005-05-01
Lebanon by Jan Mcdaniel; Camille Pecastaing (Introduction by)At one time, Lebanon was considered the most cosmopolitan country in the Middle East. That changed with a devastating 15-year-long civil war that began in the mid-1970s, followed by another 15 years of Syrian domination. As Lebanon attempts to rebuild, it faces many problems. The terrorist organization Hezbollah operates freely in southern Lebanon, and its leaders have been elected to important positions in the state's government. In addition, more than 400,000 Palestinians live as refugees in the country. Periodic attacks on Israel from within Lebanon have led to deadly retaliation. This book examines the economic and political issues facing Lebanon today. It provides up-to-date information about the country's geography and climate, history, society, important cities and communities, and relations with other countries. Each title in this series contains color photos, maps, timelines and graphics that will help student readers put events into historical and present day perspective as well as back matter including: an index, further reading lists for books and internet resources, and a series glossary. Mason Crest's editorial team has placed Key Icons to Look for throughout the books in this series in an effort to encourage library readers to build knowledge, gain awareness, explore possibilities and expand their viewpoints through our content rich non-fiction books. Key Icons are as follows: Words to Understand are shown at the front of each chapter with definitions. These words are then used in the prose throughout that chapter, and are emboldened, so that the reader is able to reference back to the definitions- building their vocabulary and enhancing their reading comprehension. Sidebars are highlighted graphics with content rich material within that allows readers to build knowledge and broaden their perspectives by weaving together additional information to provide realistic and holistic perspectives. Text Dependent Questions are placed at the end of each chapter. They challenge the reader's comprehension of the chapter they have just read, while sending the reader back to the text for more careful attention to the evidence presented there. Research Projects are provided at the end of each chapter as well and provide readers with suggestions for projects that encourage deeper research and analysis. A Series Glossary of Key Terms is included in the back matter contains terminology used throughout the series. Words found here broaden the reader's knowledge and understanding of terms used in this field.
Publication Date: 2015-01-01
Memorials and Martyrs in Modern Lebanon by Lucia VolkLebanese history is often associated with sectarianism and hostility between religious communities, but by examining public memorials and historical accounts Lucia Volk finds evidence for a sustained politics of Muslim and Christian co-existence. Lebanese Muslim and Christian civilians were jointly commemorated as martyrs for the nation after various episodes of violence in Lebanese history. Sites of memory sponsored by Maronite, Sunni, Shiite, and Druze elites have shared the goal of creating cross-community solidarity by honoring the joint sacrifice of civilians of different religious communities. This compelling and lucid study enhances our understanding of culture and politics in the Middle East and the politics of memory in situations of ongoing conflict.
Publication Date: 2010-10-21
Politics and War in Lebanon by Mordechai NisanLebanon is an exceptionally misunderstood country; its religious politics are typically misrepresented and denigrated in Western political commentary. Politics and War in Lebanon offers a lucid examination of Lebanese society and politics. Mordechai Nisan examines Lebanon in its own termson its own cultural turf. He then points to the causes of political disintegration in 1975 and explores the capacity of Lebanon to recover and retain its unique national poise. Avoiding disorienting Western stereotypes, Nisan presents Lebanon in its own native frame of reference, as a multi-ethnic country that operates according to its immutable and enigmatic political forms. Lebanon is different from other Arab countries, as demonstrated through its very complex electoral system, its tradition of cross-elite cooperation, and its special sense of Lebanese national identity that differentiates it from its overbearing Syrian neighbor. Nisan explores intra-Maronite Christian feuds, identifies Syria's occupation strategy, analyzes the violence of the Palestinians, and studies Israel's failed policy strategy and the role of Hezbollah in the Lebanese power equation. Lebanon is caught between its special historical identity as a country ofpoise, creativity, and liberty and the interminable warfare in the streets and villages of the country. Although its future appears dim, its resilience enabled it to prevail in the past, and may yet continue to do so.
Publication Date: 2015-07-30
A Key to the Lebanon by Salah StetieA reflection on a land of many cultures infused with the heady scents of the Mediterranean and the Orient and illustrated with images from the distant past, the present and the future, the people and the countryside. Unlock the door and finally discover the secret beauty and variety of the Lebanon, from the snow-capped mountains down to the Mediterranean Sea.
Publication Date: 2000-09-01
Lebanon by Stanley D. KowalskiLebanon is a religiously diverse, democratic state transitioning toward independence after a ruinous civil war and the subsequent Syrian and Israeli occupations. The United States and Lebanon have historically enjoyed a good relationship due in part to cultural and religious ties, the democratic character of the state, a large, Lebanese-American community in the United States, and the pro-western orientation of Lebanon, particularly during the Cold War. Current U.S. concerns in Lebanon include strengthening the weak democratic institutions of the state, limiting the influence of Iran, Syria, and others in Lebanon's political process, and disarming Hezbollah and other militant groups in Lebanon. This book provides an overview of Lebanese politics, recent events in Lebanon, and the current issues in U.S.-Lebanon relations.
Publication Date: 2010-10-01
Democratisation and Power-Sharing in Stormy Weather by Tamirace Fakhoury MühlbacherIs democracy possible only in homogeneous societies? Does heterogeneity - clude a stable democracy? Throughout history, ethnic, linguistic, or religious homogeneity whether by circumstance, coercion, or choice, has seemingly been conducive to democracy. In France, democracy was established after the impo- tion of religious uniformity and the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The United States pulled in immigrants who renounced their original affiliations to forge a new identity in a newly born state. Still, defying assumptions, democracies have emerged in heterogeneous states such as the Swiss Confederation, the Successor States of the Holy Roman Empire and, later, those carved out of the previous colonial empires. One common feature is the failure of - often violent - attempts to enforce homogeneity, or the lack of any such attempt in the first place. In the course of time, these divided societies have learned to live in diversity, to pacify their differences, and to find a path - wards peace or at least accommodation. In sum, they went beyond forms of se- rating powers to sharing power. Whether defined by ethnicity, language, religion, or even ideology, communities agreed to a pact on participating in a joint gove- ment based on proportional or even equal representation. It is noteworthy that political systems based on power-sharing were long marg- al in mainstream political science which laid an emphasis on democratic tran- tions in homogeneous societies and on socio-economic or cultural prerequisites that facilitate the rise of democracy.
Anthologie de la Littérature Libanaise d'Expression Française by Georges LabakiLa littérature libanaise d’expression française est Vieille de plus d’un siècle et demi. Elle prend son point de depart â partir de l’introduction de l’enseignement du français au Collège d’Antoura au début du dix-neuvième siècle. Ancien élève du collège d’Antoura, Chécri Ghanem est le père de cette littérature. La littérature libanaise d’expression française groupe un grand nombre d’auteurs qui se répartissent dans tous les pays francophones comme le Liban, la France et le Canada. Elle a gagné ses lettres de noblesse grâce a un grand nombre d’écrivains tells Georges Schéhadé, Andrée Chedid et Amin Maalouf, récemment élu membre de l’Académie Française. La présente bibliographie est une mise au point de cette littérature unique qui groupe des milliers d’ouvrages dans tous les genres littéraires.
Publication Date: 2017
Lebanese Migrants in Australia and New Zealand: An Annotated Bibliography by Prepared and compiled by Paul TabarThe main aim behind the publication of this book is to present a valuable source for re¬searchers working in the field of Lebanese emigration studies, especially those re¬searchers living in Australia and New Zealand. The book provides the reader with an annotated bibliography of the books on the state of the Lebanese mi¬grants that have been published in both of the aforementioned countries. Hence, it helps researchers through facilitating the process of reference selection. It can also serve as a means of establishing unstudied fields that could be used to produce more knowledge of the state of affairs of Lebanese migrants. The author, a sociolo¬gy professor and a researcher at the Lebanese Emigration Research Center of Notre Dame University, has made use of many universities and national libraries in Australia and New Zealand to prepare this book. He has also resorted to field data in order to get the latest updates on books published by charity and social service or¬ganizations working amongst Lebanese mi¬grants. Finally, the book encompasses most of the titles of PhD theses published by various Australian and New Zealander universities on the conditions of the Lebanese Diaspora and its genealogy.
يسعى هذا الكتاب لأن يكون سندًا للباحثين في مجال دراسة أحوال المهاجرين اللبنانيّين، ولاسيّما القاطنين في أستراليا ونيوزيلندا. فهو يقدّم للقارئ "ثبت مشروح" بأغلبية الكتابات التي صدرت في البلدين المذكورين حول بعض أوضاع المهاجرين اللبنانيّين. لذلك هو، يسهّل على الباحثين عمليّة انتقاء المراجع التي قد تفيد أبحاثهم، كما ويمكن استخدامه لتجديد المجالات غير المدروسة إلى الآن، والتي يمكن القيام بها لانتاج المزيد من المعرفة حول المهاجرين اللبنانيّين.
Publication Date: 2004
Poverty, Unemployment and Development in Lebanon: Selected Regions: Zouk Mosbeh, April 4, 2003 by organized by Faculty of Business Administration and Economic, Notre Dame University, Louaize.The book tackles two main issues, the first one is: poverty and unemployment in Lebanon, where the following subjects were covered: government policies and their impact on poverty and unemployment- development policies in the last decade: balanced vs. unbalanced development - investment in the industrial sector and its impact on job creation - managing local development in Lebanon - prosperity, governance, and economic development. The second issue covers poverty and unemployment in some Lebanese regions - issues and problems of rural development: Qartaba vs Danniah - unemployment and poverty in the Qartaba region: an economic and empirical approach - developing tourism in the region of Qartaba - unemployment and poverty in Tripoli - issues of financing small and medium enterprises in Qartaba and Beirut.
يقع الكتاب في محورين: الأوّل: الفقر والبطالة في لبنان، وتناول: السياسات الحكوميّة في لبنان وآثارها على حالة الفقر والبطالة – سياسات التنمية في العقد الأخير: بين التوازن واللاتوازن – الإستثمار في القطاع الصناعيّ اللبنانيّ وأثره في خلق فرص عمل – إدارة التنمية المحلية في لبنان – أسباب البطالة والفقر في لبنان: مقاربة إدارية.
أما المحور الثاني فتوقف عند الفقر والبطالة في بعض المناطق اللبنانيّة وسبل تنميتها وتمويلها – قضايا ومشاكل التنمية الريفيّة: منطقتا قرطبا والضنيّة – البطالة والفقر في منطقة قرطبا – الإنماء السياحيّ في قرطبا – حالة الفقر والبطالة في طرابلس – قضايا تمويل الشركات الصغيرة والمتوسّطة الحجم في بيروت وقرطبا.
Publication Date: 2003
Determinants for Saving: Lebanon, 1974-2000 by Roy J. KhoueiriIn 1991, the war in Lebanon came to an end, and government authority was gradually restored. However, sixteen years of hostilities resulted in fundamental changes in the economy in the postwar years, causing the GDP to be lower than in the prewar period. This was also accompanied by inflationary pressure, a reduction in the purchasing power of the national currency, large fiscal deficits, and a severe decline in the standard of living among the middle class.
The economy's rate of savings out of the current income and the investment of such savings play a major role, along with other factors, in determining the growth of an economy. This book focuses on a study of savings in general, and their relation with growth and their influence on the GDP, inflation, and interest rates in particular.
Analysis will also shed light on the main factors behind the increase in the rate of poverty, income inequality, and the mismanagement of fiscal policy, which lead to negative public sector savings, crowding out investment and causing a drop in the GDP. In the long term, the study promotes developmental policies that should be adopted with respect to the determinants of saving and the direction of causality between saving and growth.
شهد العام 1991 نهاية الحرب في لبنان واستعادة السلطة الحكوميّة لذاتها تدريجيًّا. لكنّ ستّ عشرة سنة من العنف والتقاتل فرضت تغيّرات جذريّة في الاقتصاد اللبنانيّ على السنوات التي تلت الحرب، ودفعت بإجماليّ الناتج المحليّ إلى الانخفاض إلى ما دون المعدّل في سنوات ما قبل الحرب. وقد تزامن ذلك مع ضغوطات على الليرة اللبنانيّة في أسواق الصرف: تضخّم، وتدنّي القدرة الشرائيّة للعملة الوطنيّة، وعجز ماليّ كبير، وهبوط حادّ في المستوى المعيشيّ للطبقة الوسطى. وقد لعب معدّل الادّخار من الدخل الحاليّ وطريقة استثماره، دورًا كبيرًا وأساسيًّا في تحديد نموّ الاقتصاد.
وثمّة في الكتاب تركيز على دراسة الادّخار بشكل عامّ، وعلاقته بالنموّ وتأثيره على الناتج الاجماليّ المحليّ، وعلى التضخّم ومعدّلات الفوائد بشكل خاصّ. وهو يسلّط الضوء على العوامل الأساسيّة في ارتفاع مستوى الفقر وفروقات الدخل وسوء إدارة السياسة الماليّ التي أدّت إلى ادّخار سلبيّ في القطاع العامّ وغياب الصرف الاستثماريّ وانخفاض الناتج الاجماليّ المحليّ.
وتخلص الدراسة إلى وجوب تعزيز السياسات التي تدعم الادّخار، وتساعد على تخفيض الدين والتحديد الحرّ لمعدّلات الفوائد.