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This Lebanon Research Guide provides some guidance on where to start researching for resources related to Lebanon. The guide includes many topics of interest, and resources in multiple languages and formats, from books, e-books, journals, newspapers, Dissertations & Theses, and mix of relevant web links.

Bechara El Khoury

(1890-1964) Bechara El Khoury was the first post-independence President of Lebanon (1943-1952).


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The Chronology of Lebanon's Independence


European-Ottoman treaty called Organic Regulation (Mount Lebanon) was a series of conventions between the Ottoman Empire and main European Powers which lead to the creation of Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifiya.


Image Source: Part of a series on the History of Lebanon.

(5 September 1860)

An international committee from the Ottoman Empire, France, Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Britain, encountered to endorse a new system for Lebanon.


Image source: Ottoman Bank in Beirut.


The Mount Lebanon Muttasarifate system was established in 1861. And it persisted until 1918.


Image source: Lebanese soldiers during the Mutasarrifiyya period of Mount Lebanon.

(1919 – 1920)

Between these periods, the Paris Peace Conference was the official assembly of the victorious Allies by the end of World War I.


Image source: Paris Peace Conference.

(27 October 1919)

The Lebanese delegation headed by the Maronite Patriarch Elias Peter Hoayek has presented the aspirations in the memorandum to the Paris Peace Conference.


Image source: Patriarch Hoayek in 1899.

(25 April 1920)

The San Remo Resolution has decided to allocate the Class “A” League of Nations mandates for the administration of three then-undefined Ottoman territories in the Middle East, as “Palestine, Syria and Mesopotamia.


Image source: San Remo resolution: After the resolution on 25 April 1920, standing outside Villa Devachan, from left to right: Matsui, Lloyd George, Curzon, Berthelot, Millerand, Vittorio Scialoja, Nitti.

(10 August 1920)

After signing the treaty of Sevres. The Ottoman Empire has been separated. In addition, after the peace conference, the French were granted the French Mandate for Lebanon and Syria.


Image source: Mehmed Hâdî Pasha signs the Treaty of Sèvres.

(1 September 1920)

Announcing the creation of the State of Greater Lebanon by General Gouraud following Decree 318 of August 31, 1920.


Image source: Proclamation of the state of Greater Lebanon on 1 September 1920 in the Pine Residence.


Mandate for Syria and The Lebanon.


Image source: Front cover of the Mandate document, 1922.

(23 May 1926)

The State of Greater Lebanon became the Lebanese Republic.


Image source: A Greater Lebanon five-piastre coin, 1924.

(25 May 1926)

The Lebanese Constitution.


Image source: Constitution of Lebanon.

(1 September 1926)

Elections of Charles Dabbas as First President of Lebanon.


Image source: His excellency Charles Dabbas.

(9 May 1932)

Suspension of the constitution by the French high commissioner Henri Ponsot.


Image source: Henri Ponsot- High Commissioner of the Levant.

(30 January 1934)

Habib Pacha El-Saad was named President under the French Mandate in 1934.


Image source: Habib Pacha El-Saad- President of Lebanon.


The Franco-Lebanese Treaty of Independence.


Image source: Syrian Delegation signing the Franco-Syrian Treaty in Paris in 1936.

(30 January 1936)

Elections of Emile Eddeh as President.


Image source: Official portrait of Émile Eddé. Wikipedia,org

(22 November 1943)

Independence of Lebanon.


Image source: Sabri Hamadé and Majid Arslan with the Lebanese flag.

Collections "Lebanon"

Open Access NDU Press


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